Gerund ( verb+ ing)
1. We use the gerund after prepositions ( this includes phrasal verbs and different expressions)
- I drank a cup of tea before leaving.
- After having a shower I waited for the show to start.
- Phrasal verbs:
- I’m keen on swimming in the sea.
- You need to carry on reading the book, it’s really interesting .
- I gave up smoking 3 years ago.
- It’s not worth going to the cinema, that movie is boring.
- There’s no point arguing with him, he will not change his mind.
2. We use the gerund as the subject or object of a sentence:
- Swimming is a fun exercise
- Going to parties is fun
- I enjoy reading
3. We use the gerund after specific verbs:
- admit: He admitted having stolen the money.
- avoid: They avoid going on tours in the desert.
- consider :Ralph is considering buying a new car.
- delay: I delayed telling my mother the news.
- dislike: We dislike reading bad news.
- can’t/couldn’t help: He couldn’t help falling in love with her.
- enjoy: I enjoy playing basketball.
- finish: They finished working in the garden two hours ago.
- Include: Your responsibility includes taking reservations on the phone.
- Involve: The project will involve growing fruits and vegetables.
- keep (on): They keep on running.
- Mention: Did Alex ever mention playing chess?
- Mind: I don’t mind sleeping on the sofa.
- Miss: They miss playing with their friends in the park.
- Risk: You risk catching a cold.
- Suggest: She suggested flying to Amsterdam.
Infinitive (to +infinitive)
1. After adjectives
- It is difficult to get up at 5 o’clock in the morning.
- I’m happy to be here.
- It’s better not to go out , it’s raining.
a) After “the first”
- My best friend was the first to see the film.
b) After “the last”
- Peter was the last to watch the film.
c) After “the next”
- He is the next to get his driving licence.
2. After specific verbs:
- Agree: She agreed to give a presentation in front of her class.
- Ask*: I asked him to leave early, not to miss his train.
- Decide: We decided to go out for lunch.
- Help*: He helped to clean the park because he was bothered by the rubbish.
- Plan: She plans to buy a new car next week.
- Hope: I hope to pass all my exams.
- Learn: They are learning to sing as part of a group.
- Want*: I want to come to the party ,but I don’t know if my parents will let me .
- Would like*: I would like you to see her tonight, but she is too busy.
- Promise: We promised not to be late.
*We can use an object before the infinitive with these verbs.
- (Note that ‘help’ can also be followed by the infinitive without ‘to’ with no difference in meaning: ‘I helped to carry it’ = ‘I helped carry it’.)
We use the bare infinitive (the infinitive without “to”):
- After modal verbs
- I can meet you at the cinema at six o’clock.
2. After ‘let’, ‘make’ and (sometimes) ‘help’
- The teacher let us leave early because we finished all the exercises.
3. After some verbs of perception (see, watch, hear, notice, feel, sense) –
- I watched her walk away.
4. After expressions with ‘why’ :
- Why spoil your appetite with sweets?